Guar Gum is derived from the ground endosperm of Cyamopsis Tetragonolobus, a plant
of the Leguminosae family. The plant grows to about 1-2 metres high with vertical
stalks. The seed pods, about 15 cm long, grow on these stalks and hold 6-9 seeds
which are about 2-3 mm in diameter. Roughly, 14-16% of the seed is the hull, 38-45%
is the endosperm and 40-46% germ.
The crop is sown after the first rains in June/July and is harvested after 3-4 months.
It is a hardy, drought resistant crop that requires moderate rainfall at regular
The Guar Seed is broken to get 2 halves referred to as Guar splits. Dehusking of
the splits is achieved through heating, grinding, polishing and sieving. The endosperm
is separated from the germ through sieving and is then hydrated, pulverised and
dried to make a powder according to physical, chemical and microbiological specifications.
Guar Gum is a polysaccharide with a straight chain of D-mannopyranose units joined
by B (1-4) linkages with a side branching unit of a single D-galactopyronase joined
to every other mannose unit by L (1-6) linkages. It is a white to yellowish-white
powder, practically odourless and has a bland taste.
It will disperse and swell almost completely in hot or cold water and is insoluble
in organic solvents. The viscosity depends on temperature, time, pH, agitation rate
and particle size of the powder.
Guar Gum is offered in both food and industrial grade with particle size ranging
from 40 mesh to 300 mesh and viscosity ranging from ultra low (50 cps) to ultra
high (7000 cps).
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